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Taruhan Sepak Bola – Apa itu Taruhan Lay dan Bagaimana Cara Kerjanya?

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Penawaran taruhan tradisional dengan taruhan pada kontestan mana yang akan memenangkan pertandingan. Pelaku taruhan bertaruh pada peluang taruhannya dan jika dia menang dia akan menerima taruhan aslinya ditambah apa pun peluangnya. Ini juga dikenal sebagai "taruhan kembali" karena petaruh itu "mendukung" satu tim di atas yang lain.

Taruhan awam, di sisi lain, adalah konsep taruhan bola resmi yang relatif baru di mana pemain bertaruh melawan tim yang memenangkan pertandingan. Ini umumnya dilakukan melalui pertukaran taruhan dan orang yang membuat taruhan awam pada dasarnya menjadi taruhan mereka sendiri, menetapkan peluang mereka sendiri.

Hampir semua taruhan awam bahkan taruhan uang. Ini berarti jika pemain menang, dia berdiri untuk menang dua kali lipat dari taruhan aslinya, atau taruhan aslinya dua kali. Namun, jika dia kalah taruhan, dia harus membayar pendukung taruhan asli ditambah peluangnya. Ini berarti bahwa lebih sering daripada tidak, potensi kemenangannya lebih kecil daripada potensi pertanggungjawabannya.

Misalnya, jika Orang A ingin bertaruh £ 10 melawan tim XYZ, ia akan melakukan penawaran pada pertukaran taruhan. Orang B yakin bahwa XYZ akan menang, jadi dia cocok dengan taruhan; Taruhan Orang A yang sesuai dengan £ 10. Sebagai bagian dari taruhan awam, Orang A menetapkan peluang XYZ untuk memenangkan permainan di 5. Jadi Orang A, yang membuat taruhan awam, harus memasang tidak hanya taruhan £ 10, tetapi juga kewajiban potensial (perbedaan antara taruhan aslinya dan peluangnya). Dalam hal ini penjamin adalah £ 40 (peluang 5 x £ 10 = £ 50 - taruhan awal sebesar £ 10 = £ 40). Jika XYZ kalah, Person A mendapatkan kembali £ 10 aslinya, jaminannya sebesar £ 40, ditambah Person B £ 10. Jika XYZ menang, maka Orang B tidak hanya mendapatkan kembali £ 10 aslinya, tetapi ia juga memenangkan peluang, atau jaminan yang diberikan oleh Orang A, £ 40.

Pertanyaan utama yang diajukan banyak orang adalah: jika potensi kemenangan selalu lebih kecil dari potensi kerugian, mengapa ada orang yang melakukan ini? Alasan utamanya adalah karena hal itu memungkinkan petaruh awam untuk mengatur peluangnya sendiri. Tentu saja peluang yang ditetapkan oleh petaruh awam harus masuk akal untuk menarik petaruh kembali untuk mencocokkan taruhan. Lebih lanjut, karena semua pertukaran membutuhkan petaruh awam untuk menyetor kedua taruhannya sendiri ditambah seluruh jumlah kewajiban potensial sebelum taruhan ditawarkan, tidak ada kemungkinan bertaruh di luar kemampuan langsungnya.

Sejauh ini, kemampuan untuk menetapkan peluang adalah hasil utama dari taruhan awam, jadi jika seseorang memiliki sistem penghitungan peluang secara efisien, orang tersebut pada dasarnya dapat memperoleh manfaat dari sistem yang sama dengan yang dilakukan oleh bandar taruhan dasar. Lebih lanjut, karena tim sepak bola selalu memiliki penggemar hardcore yang selalu bertaruh untuk tim mereka sendiri, selama petaruh awam menghitung peluangnya dengan baik dan masuk akal, ada peluang besar untuk menemukan petaruh belakang yang bertaruh lebih banyak dengan hatinya daripada dengan kepalanya. . Jika penonton tahu bagaimana menggunakan taruhan awam, itu bisa menjadi usaha yang sangat menguntungkan.

Belajar Lingo Website Poker Gratis

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Saya ingat ketika saya pertama kali mulai bermain poker gratis dan ada begitu banyak istilah yang saya tidak mengerti, itu seperti bahasa yang sama sekali berbeda.

Semoga panduan ini akan membantu Anda mempelajari beberapa istilah yang lebih modern, dan juga beberapa istilah yang lebih kompleks yang digunakan saat bermain poker. bahkan ada beberapa istilah untuk mereka yang asing bagi beberapa pemain. Seperti...

4th street - juga biasa disebut Turn
5th street - the river

Tetapi itu bukan batas dari persyaratan yang dapat Anda ingat saat Anda merenungkan langkah selanjutnya. Ingatlah ini ketika Anda menonton taruhan datang kepada Anda.

Dimainkan dengan ketat - istilah yang berarti bahwa pemain tidak memainkan banyak tangan
Dimainkan secara longgar - berlawanan bandarqq dengan bermain ketat, dan pemain cenderung memainkan banyak tangan
Memainkan "ATC" - mereka memainkan apa pun "ATC" = dua kartu " .
Pada tilt- berarti bahwa seorang pemain sedang tidak menentu dengan taruhan mereka biasanya dari kehilangan tangan sulit sebelumnya.

Sekarang Anda memiliki gagasan tentang situasi pra-gagal sekarang mari kita lihat istilah aktivitas papan.

Over pair - Sepasang di tangan Anda yang mengalahkan apa yang ada di papan tulis.
Pasangan teratas - berarti Anda telah memasangkan kartu tertinggi di papan dengan satu di tangan Anda. Turun berikutnya adalah pasangan tengah dan pasangan bawah.

Jika Anda berhasil selamat dari kegagalan tetapi St 4 dan 5 tersisa untuk bertahan. Maka Anda memiliki tiga istilah lagi yang perlu diingat saat Anda pergi.

Keluar - jumlah kartu yang dapat memberi Anda kemenangan.
Mengundurkan diri - ini pada dasarnya berarti bahwa Anda tidak memiliki peluang untuk menang. Beberapa pemain jika mereka imbang mati dapat menggertak atau miring pada detik terakhir untuk mencoba dan mencuri pot.
Memiliki "mur" - Memiliki mur berarti Anda memiliki tangan terbaik yang tersedia dari kartu di papan tulis dan di tangan Anda.

Beberapa tips bagus saat bermain

Memang, dalam semua permainan poker gratis dan poker berbayar, semua orang bisa bertaruh, memeriksa, dan menaikkan tetapi bahkan ketiga opsi itu dapat mengarah pada beberapa kemungkinan menarik. Bahkan istilah seperti check and rise dapat menyebabkan beberapa skenario yang cukup menarik dan membuat para pemain menjadi gila. Salah satu contohnya adalah cek kenaikan gaji. Istilah itu berarti memeriksa ketika taruhan datang kepada Anda tetapi kemudian naikkan jika taruhan muncul. Taktik ini dapat menyembunyikan kekuatan tangan Anda dan dapat memikat pemain agar kehilangan banyak chip jika ia tidak berhati-hati dalam memainkannya.

Taruhan nilai - Adalah taruhan yang bukan taruhan besar tetapi dianggap cukup kecil untuk dipanggil. Beberapa pemain mungkin memanggil taruhan nilai dengan harapan mengukur permainan permainan pemain atau untuk melihat tangan mereka.

Taruhan semi-tebing - Mirip dengan taruhan tebing tetapi cukup taruhan untuk membuat pemain berpikir dengan sangat hati-hati tentang apa langkah mereka selanjutnya.

Pot odds - Istilah ini akan saya katakan adalah istilah yang paling berguna untuk diingat. Peluang pot adalah rasio dari chip Anda dalam pot versus seluruh pot. Sebagai contoh jika Anda memiliki $ 1500 dalam pot $ 6000 peluang pot Anda akan menjadi 4: 1. Ingatlah hal ini jika Anda berada dalam genggaman ketat dan tidak yakin apakah Anda harus mengambil risiko lebih atau tidak.

Pot berkomitmen - Istilah yang berarti bahwa seorang pemain memiliki mayoritas chip mereka dalam pot. Ini adalah istilah yang sangat berguna karena dapat memutuskan untuk mundur atau memaksa mereka semua jika Anda memiliki kacang.

Apakah Anda bermain game poker gratis atau poker berbayar, jika Anda mendengar istilah-istilah ini dalam game Anda, maka semoga mereka akan memberi Anda keunggulan untuk mengetahui apa yang terjadi dan Anda dapat menggunakan ini untuk keuntungan Anda untuk memenangkan lebih banyak chip.

Mainkan Texas Hold’em Poker

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Texas Hold'em adalah game yang sangat trendi saat ini. Hampir setiap kali Anda menyalakan televisi, tampaknya seseorang bermain poker.

Untuk bermain daftar togel online , Anda memerlukan sekelompok teman yang mau bermain, perusahaan lokal (seperti bar atau warung) yang menawarkan meja poker, atau Anda dapat bermain Texas Hold'em online. Bermain game secara pribadi sedikit berbeda dari bermain online. Jika Anda belum pernah memiliki kesempatan untuk bermain poker Texas Hold'em sebelumnya, Anda mungkin ingin berlatih online sebelum Anda bermain dalam permainan tatap muka. Ketika Anda bermain poker Texas Hold'em online, sistem akan memberi tahu Anda berapa banyak Anda bisa bertaruh atau jika Anda membuat taruhan yang salah. Sementara dealer di kasino atau teman Anda mungkin menawarkan saran kepada Anda, akan membantu jika Anda tahu apa yang Anda lakukan sebelum duduk di meja.

Jika Anda memutuskan untuk menyelenggarakan malam poker di rumah Anda, Anda akan membutuhkan peralatan tertentu untuk bermain poker Texas Hold'em. Anda membutuhkan cukup meja dan kursi (untuk enam hingga sepuluh orang). Anda juga akan membutuhkan chip. Sebagai tuan rumah, Anda mungkin ingin menyajikan minuman, tetapi orang mungkin ingin membawa minuman sendiri.

Jika Anda tidak memiliki teman yang bermain poker Texas Hold'em dan Anda tidak tinggal di dekat kasino, Anda selalu dapat menemukan permainan poker online. Kadang-kadang ini lebih mudah dilakukan daripada mengatur permainan di rumah karena Anda dapat bermain kapan saja dan Anda tidak perlu khawatir memiliki semua peralatan untuk dimainkan.

Reconditioned Electrical Equipment Can Be Safe, Reliable and Sustainable

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Just about every product in the world has two main markets: one for new product, and a second market for used sometimes referred to as surplus, reconditioned, rebuilt or remanufactured product.

Cars, computers, jewelry, and electronics are just a few examples of thriving industries that trade in used goods. The commercial and industrial electrical supply markets are no exception.

Electrical equipment, like automobiles and industrial machinery, are designed to last decades. However, like other durable goods, electrical equipment can be dangerous to the inexperienced whether it is new or used product. The confluence of these two facts means that product safety not just availability is critical to a healthy electrical marketplace.

In 1908, the National Association of Electrical Distributors was formed to "establish the electrical distributor as an essential force in the electrical industry and economy," followed by the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA) in 1926. These venerable associations eventually expanded to include educational programs and standards to help improve the operations and safety of the electrical supply chain with a focus on new product from electrical Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). During the next 50 years, two other associations emerged to help service the used and installed base of electrical equipment. The Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA) focused on rewinding standards for electric motors, while the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) offered guidance, education, and certification for field-testing electrical equipment. But it wasn't until 1996 that a group of independent electrical distributors joined forces to promote the reconditioning of industrial electrical product. The Professional Electrical Apparatus Recyclers League (PEARL) is the only trade association that offers technical reconditioning standards for industrial electrical product, a code of ethics, ongoing education, site and technician certification, and best practices. Today, PEARL's corporate membership has grown to more than 70 independent electrical resellers with revenues in excess of $500 million each year.

Why Do We Need Used Electrical Equipment?

Why does a secondary, or "out of channel" market for electrical equipment exist? It exists for the same reason that electrical OEMs and wholesale distributors exist - supply and demand.

Consider a manufacturing plant that has a failed component in a critical electrical service. A new replacement component is not available from the manufacturer and distributors for weeks, months, or worse, not at all. So what is the plant to do?

How about the power generating station that distributes electricity through a vintage - but perfectly serviceable - 15kv switchgear built in 1959. The station needs to upgrade their integral tie breaker from 2000A to 3000A to keep up with escalating demand.

The most cost effective (and practical) way to upgrade the service is to replace the tie breaker with one of similar vintage and design, but with the higher current rating. Unfortunately, primary supply channels stopped stocking this product 30 years ago.

What about the new office building that is falling further and further behind schedule waiting for a certain size and type of conduit or conduit fittings, only to discover weeks past the original delivery date that the material is on backorder with no estimated time of delivery?

Each of these cases represents need-it-now demand for electrical products - critical demand from the customers' perspectives. Enter the secondary electrical supply house. They've acquired and warehoused hard-to-find electrical product for just these types of situation. However, even when the replacement component is located, the question remains: How safe is the replacement?

The only way to answer the "safety" question is to validate the component through acceptance testing, and when necessary, recondition the component to meet or exceed the product's original performance specifications, or upgrade the component with newer technologies that exceed the original specification.

This is where a knowledgeable secondary channel for electrical product performs a valuable and necessary service, particularly as OEMs continue to adopt 'lean' manufacturing processes that extend lead times for many pieces of electrical equipment.

To answer this demand, independent resellers of new, surplus, and reconditioned electrical products have acquired massive inventories of electrical service equipment from closed industrial plants, scaled-back construction projects, and electrical distributors themselves when OEMs discontinue or change product lines. Unlike OEMs and franchise electrical distributors, these independent electrical distributors hold inventory much longer than the primary channel so that when customers need a component for expansion or replacement, the device is available and the customer can get back to business.

Are You Paying Too Much On Your Electric Bill?

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Texas is leading the nation in Energy Deregulation. Because of the planning and implementation of a very efficient Energy Deregulation and Operating System by the Texas Legislature, Texans can now enjoy the benefits of competition. Texas created the Electric Reliability Council of Texas.

The mission of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) is to direct and ensure reliable and cost-effective operation of the electric grid and to enable fair and efficient market-driven solutions to meet customers' electric service needs.

The ERCOT grid covers approximately 75 percent of the land area in Texas.
The Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) manages the flow of electric power to approximately 20 million Texas customers - representing 85 percent of the state's electric load and 75 percent of the Texas land area.

As the independent system operator for the region, ERCOT schedules power on an electric grid that connects 38,000 miles of transmission lines and more than 500 generation units.

ERCOT also manages financial settlement for the competitive wholesale bulk-power market and administers customer switching for 5.9 million Texans in competitive choice areas.

Balanced market rules are a basic element in Texas competition. Clear, predictable and well-designed rules help foster a stable electricity market. Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market rules are developed by participants from all aspects of the electricity industry. The rules and amendments are reviewed by the Public Utility Commission of Texas to ensure that they satisfy the public interest.

WHY COMPETITION?

Texas lawmakers changed state law to allow customers to have more control over their purchase of electric service because they believe competition is good for Texas. Over time, competition for electric service is expected to lower rates and speed the development of new products and services.

WHAT HAS CHANGED?

In the past, one company provided all parts of your electric service (generation, transmission and distribution, and retail sales). With competition, these parts are separated into different companies. Generation, or production of electricity, was deregulated in 1995, resulting in an ample supply of new, cleaner and more efficient power plants throughout Texas.
The actual delivery of electricity across poles and wires to your home is called transmission and distribution. These services are provided to you by your local wires company, which is responsible for maintaining the poles and wires, and responding to emergencies and power outages as always. The Public Utility Commission continues to regulate transmission and distribution to ensure the safety and reliability of your electric service.
With electric competition, Retail Electric Providers sell electricity to you and provide functions such as customer service and billing. Retail Electric Providers compete for your business by offering lower prices, renewable energy options, added customer service benefits or other incentives.
No matter which Retail Electric Provider provides your service, the Public Utility Commission continues to enforce customer protections and regulate the delivery of electricity to ensure it is delivered safely and reliably by the local wires company .

Competition also is expected to create new jobs, stimulate economic development and help our environment.

CUSTOMER RIGHTS

All Retail Electric Providers must adhere to Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUC) rules and regulations designed to protect you against fraudulent, unfair, misleading, discriminatory or anti-competitive practices.

These protections include:

Non-Discrimination: In addition to standard discrimination prohibitions, a Retail Electric Provider may not deny service or discriminate in the marketing of electric service based on a customer's income level, location in an economically distressed area, or qualification for low-income or energy efficiency services.

Electric Smart Cars – Rational Reasons and Results When Buying One

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There are many reasons for buying any electric smart car, hybrid electric or plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The soaring costs of gas is likely the biggest and most pressing issue when considering buying an electric car. The environment and the planet is another concern. Whatever the reason, buying any BEV, PHEV or green planet-friendly automobile instead of that fossil-fuel burning internal combustion engine car, we'll certainly have a positive effect on helping save the planet and save you money as well.

In order to make a smart electric car buying decisions, it is important to understand what the different types of electric-powered vehicles, and how smart electric cars work.

There are three types of electric assisted vehicle that utilize an electric motor of some kind. The battery electric vehicle (BEV) is as the name suggests-a battery powered vehicle. There is no other power source for the vehicle, no internal combustion engine (ICE) running on gasoline, and therefore the battery must be charged between uses, and will discharge during use until it runs out. At this point the vehicle can no longer run, so you'll need to be near a charging point before you run out of gas, I mean electric juice.

Two types of hybrid electric vehicles offer the best of both the electric and the ICE vehicle worlds. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) uses an electric motor to either propel the car or to increase the power. Generally the result of this is to extend the distance that it can travel on a tank of fuel, giving the hybrid electric car better fuel economy.

Lastly there is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This runs in a largely similar way to the HEV but with one major difference-the battery can be plugged into a charging point, in order to completely charge the battery to its maximum capacity. The HEV by comparison can only charge its battery with the current generated by its ICE, or through regenerative breaking (a process in which energy is reclaimed during breaking rather than lost). By fully charging the battery the use of electrical power can be prolonged, and the use of gasoline reduced, making the PHEV the more economical of the hybrid electric vehicles.

The drive-train of a BEV is very simple-a battery powers the motor, which propels the electric vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicles will run an ICE and electric motor either in parallel or in series, with both the ICE and electric motor being able to move the electric or hybrid electric vehicle. A capacitor allows energy to be channeled back into the battery too, and in the case of the PHEV a separate charging circuit like that of the BEV is included to separately charge the hybrid electric vehicle.

There are two types of battery that are used in BEV, PHEV and HEV cars. Nickel metal hydride batteries are an older technology, and one that suffers from battery degradation more quickly than others. Newer, lithium-ion batteries are far more efficient, as well as longer lasting in both electric and hybrid electric vehicles. They don't suffer from memory formation like nickel metal hydride batteries, and tend to be able to provide more power for the engine than the alternative.

Older hybrid electric vehicles may still use lead-acid batteries, but these are generally now considered bad for the environment, and are no longer used.

There are pros and cons to making the move to an electric or hybrid vehicle. They are cheaper to run than ICE cars and have good speed, and hybrid electric vehicles have good range too. But the BEV class can run generally for only up to 40-200 miles, leading to what is known as range anxiety. Hybrid electric vehicles overcome by using the ICE as well, giving vastly superior range.

Another downside is that the batteries wear out and need replacing. This is an expensive part on the car, and on a BEV the battery failure means that the car will completely fail to run. A hybrid at least has its ICE on which to fall back.

Electricity Innovations

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Even though the modern electric utility industry didn't begin until the late 1800s, we have been fascinated by electricity since our ancestors first witnessed lightning. The ancient Greeks discovered that rubbing amber produced an electric charge. Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. It is a secondary energy source that we get from the conversion of primary sources such as natural gas, oil, coal and nuclear power. Many cities and towns were built alongside waterfalls that turned water wheels to perform work. Before the beginning of the electricity generation, kerosene lamps lit houses, iceboxes were used to keep food cold, and rooms were warmed by stoves. The "necessities" of today such as light bulbs, fans, air conditioners and refrigerators stem from the ideas of inventors that lived over 100 years ago. Many of us are familiar with Benjamin Franklin's famous kite experiment and Thomas Edison's electrical light bulb, but there were many other inventors that contributed greatly to our modern uses of electricity. Some of these inventors simply sought to improve upon old ideas and others saw a need and let their curiosity run wild with each experiment until they discovered something new. Each invention paved the way for the next.

In the mid-1600s Otto von Guericke, a German physicist, started experimenting with generating electricity. In 1670 he invented the first machine to produce electricity in large amounts using a ball of sulfur which he rotated and he held his hand against the ball, charging it with electricity. Others, such as Isaac Newton, later used this machine using a ball of glass instead of sulfur, and then later a cylinder, and then a glass plate.

In 1747 Benjamin Franklin started to experiment with electricity and proposed the notion of positive and negative charge. He performed his famous kite experiment to prove that lightning was a form of electrical discharge in 1752. During a thunderstorm he flew a kite with a stiff wire pointing up attached to the top of the kite and a key tied to the other end of the string, and let it hang close to a jar. The string became wet from the rain and caused sparks to jump from the key into the jar until the jar could not handle any more charges. This experiment proved that electricity and lightning are one in the same and that pointed rods conduct electricity better than balls, leading to Franklin's invention of the lightning rod. Beginning with this experiment, the principles of electricity gradually became understood.

In 1800 an Italian professor, Alessandro Volta, invented the voltaic pile which is now called an electric cell or battery. He made a stack of disks of zinc, acid or salt-soaked paper and copper, and when he touched both ends he received a shock. The volt is named after Volta. Another, who in the first half of the 1800s contributed greatly to our modern uses of electricity, was Michael Faraday. He performed experiments on electricity and magnetism which led to modern inventions such as the motor, generator, telegraph and telephone. In 1831 he experimented with induction and discovered a way to generate a lot of electricity at once. We use his principle of electromagnetic induction for generating electricity today in electric utility plants.

In the mid 1800s, the invention of the electric light bulb changed everyone's life. This invention used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes. Thomas Edison, an American inventor, didn't invent the light bulb, but improved upon a 50-year-old idea and invented an incandescent light bulb. Many people before him had developed forms of electric lighting, but none of these were practical for home use. In 1879, after experimenting for a year and a half, he used lower current electricity, a filament of carbonized sewing thread, and an improved vacuum inside the globe to produce a practical, electrical light bulb. Edison demonstrated his incandescent lighting system for the public as he electrically lit the Menlo Park laboratory complex. He realized the need for an electrical distribution system to provide power for lighting and in 1882 the first central commercial incandescent electric generating station provided light and electric power to customers in one square mile area in New York City. This was the beginning of the electric age as the industry was evolving from gas and electric carbon-arc commercial and street lighting systems. By the late 1880s the demand for electric motors brought the industry to 24-hour service and the electricity demand for transportation and industry needs was dramatically increased. Many U.S. cities now had small central stations, however each was limited to an area of just a few blocks because of the transmission inefficiencies of direct current (DC). As electricity spread around the world, Edison's various electric companies continued to expand until they joined to form Edison General Electric in 1889. Three years later Edison General Electric merged with its leading competitor Thompson-Houston and the company became simply General Electric.

Big Oil Companies No longer Pull the Plug on Electric Vehicles

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Introduction

As gas prices continue to rise throughout the nation, rumors of oil conspired wars loom in the Middle East, and the lingering threat of human-induced harmful global warming becomes a reality; it is clear that an alternative form of energy must be implemented soon to replace the nation’s addiction to oil. While oil is used for many different forms of energy, vehicles used for transportation are responsible for a large portion of the oil consumption in the United States. Therefore, the need to convert our gas-guzzling autos to run off of alternative forms of energy is the first step to wining our nation off of oil usage.

Over the past decade, there have been several attempts to produce alternative forms of energy which can be converted to power by our every day drivers. These attempts have encompassed everything from solar to alcohol powered vehicles; however, due to lack of technology most of these non-greenhouse emitting vehicles have remained as nothing more than a dream. However, electric vehicles proves to be the exception as it has already been mass produced in 1996 by one of the Nations leading auto manufactures.

The first initial push that drove automobile producers to create an electric car came from the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The CARB mandated that 2% of the cars sold in California by 1998 must be considered "Zero Emission Vehicles"(ZEVs). After the 1998 dead line, new requirements were made by the CARB, mandating that by 2003, 10% of all automobiles sold in California must be ZEVs (Motavalli, 1997).

General Motors was one of the first companies to meet the CARB’s new mandates for the first zero emission vehicle. They did this with the release of the first electric vehicle known as the EV1 (Electric Vehicle 1). Conversely, soon after General Motors started, they abandoned the popular project joining the Federal Government in successfully suing the State of California to remove the CARB zero emissions requirements.

Hence, despite the large need, want and availability of the mass production of electric vehicles—they are still not being produced due to the overwhelming influence of oil driven industries and the Federal Government’s lack of intervention.

The Need

Global warming has been the center of environmental debate since 1896 when Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, hypnotized that the build up of carbon dioxide, produced by burning fossil fuels, such as coal, would increase the temperature on the planet (Clemmitt, 2006). Since the establishment of Arrhenisus’ theory on global warming over 100 years ago, scientific advancements, and new technologies have re-enforced his theory. However, the most convincing evidence of global warming is the actual changes that are occurring throughout the globe.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the global temperature has increased by one degree Fahrenheit (Clemmitt, 2006). While one degree may not seem worthy of alarm, a change in one degree can cause a devastating domino effect that can lead to the demise of the entire planet. For example, the one-degree increase in the global temperature has caused many of the worlds glaciers to begin to melt. Glacier melting is currently affecting Montana’s Glacier National Park, where nearly 120 glaciers have melted since 1910. As glaciers, such as those in Montana’s Glacier National Park, melt they cause the sea levels throughout the world to rise in both temperature and depth. Although the negative effects of melting glaciers and rising sea levels may not seem detrimental, the increase temperatures from global warming are responsible for “… providing added fuel to growing storms and hurricanes, making them more intense” (Lener, 2006). The overwhelming deadly aftermath of Hurricane Katrina has been directly attributed to global warming. Rising global temperatures are also being blamed for the European heat wave of 2003 that was responsible for killing 25,000 people (Clemmitt 2006). The list of increasing powerful and frequent natural disasters continues to grow as the globe continues to heat up.

The director of Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, James Hurrell, told the Senate’s Energy and Natural Resources Committee recently that, “The climate is changing, and the rate of change as projected exceeds anything seen in nature in the past 10,000 years” (Clemmitt, 2006). With the deadly effects of global warming already unfolding throughout the world, the solution must be implemented immediately.

Currently, green house gasses are the highest they have been in 75,000 years. In addition, human emitted carbon dioxide is at the highest levels it has ever been in the history of man (Clemmitt, 2006). Hence, it is hard to ignore the theory, of human induced-global warming, when green house gas concentrations are parallel to the large amount of human produced carbon dioxide. It is also hard to ignore a panel of nearly 25,000 scientists gathered together in 2001 to form the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The team of scientist reported “That most of the observed warming of the last 50 years is attributable to human activities” (Cooper 2001). They furthered their argument by predicting that the Earth’s overall temperature could climb up to eleven degrees Fahrenheit, under the worst-case conditions, if the amount of green house gases continue to rise (Cooper 2001). If this takes place scientists have projected that “such a rise could inundate many low-lying islands and eventually threaten such areas as the New York City borough of Manhattan and Miami Beach” (Griffin, 1992). The green house gases responsible for current and future disasters are made-up of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. The increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are the direct result of the burning of fossil fuels and the source of most of the danger.

As show in Figure 1, nearly 1/3 of the increased levels of carbon dioxide can be contributed to transportation ( Cooper 2001).

Figure 1

Carbon dioxide is one of the byproducts that are produced by the burning of gasoline within the combustible engine found in all cars and trucks on the road today.

In other words, one of the solutions to preventing further global warming is to either stop transportation all together or implement an alternative form of energy, which does not produce carbon dioxide, to power our vehicles. Obviously, the economy and the human way of life would cease to exist if we stopped transportation altogether. However, the obvious decision to use an alternative form of fuel to save the earth is rejected by major oil companies and other related industries to keep Americans addicted to oil in order not to loose their $300 billion dollar a year industry (Motavalli, 1997).